Symptoms of the Nose
Blocked Nose (Snoring)
Nasal blockage is due to a physical obstruction in the nasal airway such as a deviated septum*, polyps, a foreign body or a build-up of mucus. Large adenoids are the most common cause in young children. In very rare cases, tumours may also be a possible cause.
Stuffy Nose (Nasal Congestion)
Nasal congestion is a primary symptom of rhinitis usually caused by infections, allergies such as hay fever or general sensitivity of the nasal passages.
Runny Nose (Rhinorrhoea)
A runny nose is invariably due to excessive secretions from the nasal glands. It is a common in rhinitis, allergies and nasal or sinus infections.
Crooked Nose (Nasal Deviation)
This invariably results from a nasal injury, when the bones of the nose are broken (fractured) and become deviated. Early straightening of the bones by outside manipulation within 2 weeks will usually restore a satisfactory symmetrical appearance. Rhinoplasty surgery can usually correct any residual deformity.
Nose Bleeds (Epistaxis)
Epistaxis is very common and usually stops quickly without the need for interventional treatment. A nose injury, URTI (upper respiratory tract infection), drying and crusting due to drugs, chemotherapy, CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure machine) usage, vigorous blowing or picking are the main causes. About 20% come from arteries further back in the nose and tend to occur in men over 60 years of age with high blood pressure (hypertension) and hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). Nasal tumours can cause bleeding but are fortunately very rare. Medical conditions affecting blood clotting (coagulation) and drugs to thin the blood (anti-coagulants) can also be behind some nose bleeds.
Nose injuries are common and usually cause bleeding (epistaxis). There may also be blockage due to the collection of blood (haematoma) underneath the lining mucosa. The bones of the nose may be broken (fractured) and displaced, resulting in a crooked nose.
Sinus infection (Sinusitis / Rhinosinusitis)
Sinusitis is infective inflammation of the mucosal lining of one or more of the nasal sinuses. Swelling of the lining sinus mucosa can lead to blocked drainage and malfunction of a muscle in the eye which prevents secretions. This leads to bacterial overgrowth with yellow or green (purulent) mucus and nasal discharge or congestion. The cheek and sinuses are commonly affected first, often causing facial pressure and discomfort.
Loss of Smell (Anosmia)
Smell disorders are sinonasal disease and could be caused by: a viral Upper respiratory tract infection, a head or facial injury. The olfactory receptors are at the very top of the nose so any condition, blocking the passage of air to this area, can reduce the sense of smell, for instance, nasal polyps.
A polyp is a swelling of the lining of the nose, usually due to inflammation of the lining of the nose.